According to David Wechsler, intelligence is the ability to act as directed, to think rationally, and deal effectively environment. outline can be concluded that intelligence is a process that involves mental ability to think rationally. Therefore, intelligence can not be observed directly, but must be inferred from a variety of real action is a manifestation of the process of rational thinking.
The factors that influence intelligence are:
Congenital or hereditary factors
Research shows that the correlation between IQ test scores from one family of about 0.50. Meanwhile, in between 2 twins, the correlation of IQ test scores are very high, about 0.90. Other evidence is the adopted child. Their IQ correlates about 0.40 to 0.50 with the actual mother and father, and only from 0.10 to 0.20 with the father and adoptive mother. Further evidence in twins reared apart, they remain correlated IQ is very high, even though they may never know each other.
While there are characteristics that are essentially innate, it can lead to environmental changes that matter. Intelligence certainly can not be separated from the brain. Brain development is strongly influenced by nutritional intake. In addition to nutrition, the stimuli that are cognitive emotional environment also plays a very important role.
Intelligence and IQ
People often equate the meaning of intelligence with IQ, whereas the second term has a different meaning in a very fundamental. The meaning of intelligence has been explained above, whereas the levels of IQ or Intelligence Quotient, is a score derived from an intelligence test kits. Thus, IQ gives little indication of the level of intelligence of a person and do not reflect a person's overall intelligence.
IQ scores initially calculated by comparing mental age (Mental Age) with chronological age (Chronological Age). When an individual's ability to solve the problems presented in an intelligence test (mental age) is equal to the capacity that should be on the individual his age at the time (chronological age), you will get a score of 1. This score is then multiplied by 100 and used as the basis for calculating IQ. But then the problem arises because once the brain reaches maturity, there is no progress, even at some point will decrease the ability.
Measurement of Intelligence
In 1904, Alfred Binet and Theodor Simon, two French psychologists designed an evaluation tool that can be used to identify students who need special classes (children are less intelligent). The assays were called Binet-Simon test. The test was later revised in 1911.
In 1916, Lewis Terman, a psychologist from the United States held a lot of improvement from the Binet-Simon test. Donations primarily assign a numerical index of intelligence expressed as the ratio (ratio) between mental age and chronological age. The results of these improvements are called Test Stanford_Binet. Such index has actually introduced by a German psychologist named William Stern, who became known as the Intelligence Quotient or IQ. Stanford-Binet test is widely used to measure the intelligence of children up to the age of 13 years.
One reaction to the Binet-Simon test or the Stanford-Binet test is that it is too general. A leader in this field, Charles Sperrman argued that intelligence is not only made up of only one common factor (general factor), but also consists of factors that are more specific. This theory is called the Theory of Factor (Factor Theory of Intelligence). The assays were developed according to the theory of these factors is the WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) for adults, and the WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) for children. In addition to the tools above tests, assays are developed with more specific objectives, consistent with the objectives and the culture in which the assays were made.
Intelligence and Talent
Intelligence is a concept of the individual's general ability to adjust to the environment. In general abilities, the abilities are very specific. Specific abilities it gives the individual a condition which enables the achievement of knowledge, skills, or specific skills after going through an exercise. This is called Talent or Aptitude. Because of an intelligence test is not designed to uncover special abilities, it can not immediately known talent through intelligence tests.
The tools used to uncover this special ability called aptitude test or aptitude test. Aptitude tests designed to uncover the learning achievement in a particular field is called the Scholastic Aptitude Test and used in the field of work is Vocational Aptitude Test and Interest Inventory. Examples of the Scholastic Aptitude Test is a test of the Academic Potential (TPA) and the Graduate Record Examination (GRE). While examples of Vocational Aptitude Test or the Interest Inventory is a Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) and the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey.
Intelligence and Creativity
Creativity is one of the characteristics of intelligent behavior because creativity is also a manifestation of a cognitive process. Nevertheless, the relationship between creativity and intelligence do not always show satisfactory evidence. Although it was thought that creativity has a linear curve of relations with intelligence, but evidence from various studies do not support it. Low IQ scores was followed by a low level of creativity as well. However, the higher IQ score, is not always followed by high levels of creativity as well. Until a certain IQ scores, there is still a significant correlation. But even more, it did not find any association between IQ with levels of creativity.
Experts have been trying to figure out why this happened. J. P. Guilford explains that creativity is a process which is divergent thinking, the ability to provide a variety of alternative answers based on the information provided. In contrast, only intelligence tests designed to measure convergent thinking process that is, the ability to provide a single answer or a logical conclusion based on the information provided. This is a result of the traditional education pattern is less attention to the development of divergent thinking process although this ability proved instrumental in the advances achieved by science.