Friday, November 30, 2012


a. Illustration telescope

The telescope is a thing that serves to see objects that are very far away, using a tool that we can see clearly and look close. For example, stars in the sky, from the earth we only see white dots that glow but with the help of a telescope we could see even observe the stars and gugusannya with clearer and sharper.

The telescope is a very important tool for astronomical observations. The first time with the aim of astronomical telescope is Galileo. Early preparation telescope made in the visible wavelength range only, but after 1945 the telescope developed into the long-wave radio, and now by the advancement and sophistication of manufacture, the telescope can capture the electromagnetic spectrum, it is after the exploration of outer space.

There are many kinds of telescopes that we can meet, but in principle the telescope can be divided into three types namely telescopes: refractors, reflectors, and a combination of both, namely catadioptric telescope. In Indonesia, there is a space telescope of the oldest, ie Bosscha Observatory, precisely in Lembang, West Java. Bosscha Observatory. Equipped with binoculars the facility, make this place as a place to study astronomy program and a research institute in the field of modern astronomy first in Indonesia

Bosscha Observatory has a very big role, not only in Indonesia but also in Southeast Asia. Education programs, dedication to the community with a facility barengi binoculars that anyone who comes to see objects in the sky. Bosscha name taken from the name of the author Karel Albert Rudolf Boscca in the year 1865 - 1928, the building was constructed by NISV (Nederlandsch Indische Sterrenkundige Vereeninging), in 1951 been managed by the UI Faculty, now part of the Institute of Technology Bandung ITB.

Bosscha As historic function is still well preserved, passed into objects of cultural heritage protected by the government under Law No. 2 of 1992, and in 2008 Bosscha established as one of the objects of national importance that must be protected and secured existence.

The working principle of the telescope is not much different from the microscope objective lens There will be a shadow of real and scaled down, and there eyepiece that works like a loop that serves to enlarge the object or objects. But the bigger objective lens binoculars compared to okulet lens, reversed with what is on the microscope.

Telescopes like what is on Bosscha, until I can see the celestial bodies,? Is it like regular binoculars or a telescope instrument that we usually find in stores? To be clear, the following will be explained about the telescope is in Bosscha, totaling five telescopes, namely:

1. Zeiss double refractor telescope

Telescope is used to view and observe double stars and to measure photometric fisual happened to eclipse stars, and planetary observing. The biggest telescope on the observation that there Bosscha. Refractor is cebng lens that serves to collect light. Given a double naming because there are two telescopes, namely:

• Visual telescope, which has a wavelength sensitive pad is yellow or green with hotspots 10.78 m.
• photographic telescope, telescopes sensitive to the wave length of the blue, with hotspots along the 10.72 m.

The telescope optics producing factory made famous in the city of Jena, Germany Carl Zeiss Jena, began dioprasikan in 1928. The telescope was stored in a building with a roof like a dome shape that can spin as much as 360 degrees. The dome can be opened and closed, opened at the telescope can be rotated in any direction according to the direction of the object to be observed.

To perform astronomical observations or astronomy, the telescope is equipped with the tools to observe the planet, namely: planetary camera, in front of a camera mounted grille right in front of the objective lens in the telescope, also equipped with a ST6 CCD camera that allows observe objects that will not be caught by ordinary photography.

While the study of astrology, these telescopes can be used to study visual double stars, the determination of parallax, motion star clusters, planets and comets. The telescope is used to observe the visual double stars.

b. Schmidt Telescope Milky Way

The telescope was made in 1960, is a gift or donation of UNESCO to Bosscha Observatory. Schmidt telescope has a diameter optical correction lenses as wide as 51 cm, 71 cm diameter mirror long and 125 cm focal length. Schmidt telescope with a size of the Milky Way was smaller among other telescopes, much like a regular camera f-ratio.

These binoculars fit and suitable for the survey because it can capture wide angle, 5x approximately 5 square degrees. In Bosccha own binoculars was used to observe objects in the sky from blue to infrared wavelength, and has a sensitivity to light interference.

For the study, the telescope was used to observe the structure of the Milky Way, can determine the supernova, observed sky objects such as comets, asteroids and investigating stellar.

c. Bamberg refractor telescope

Telescope with a 37 cm diameter objective lens with a focal 7 m is in Bosccha with a roof that can be opened and closed, and includes a telescope with a kind reflaktor or convex lens. The telescope can be used for research on the bright star in the workplace can also be used to measure the distance scale.

The telescope was completed in 1929 driven by the pendulum system which is equipped with a photoelectric fotoeter can only be used at night time only binoculars were used by the public to come.

d. Cassegrain telescope GOTO

This telescope is the youngest or new telescope that has a modern use of the other existing telescopes in Bosccha. With a primary mirror diameter 45 cm long and 20 cm secondary mirror. Sepang 540 cm focal point is a combination of the two mirror cassegrain is the kind that has been modified in the reflektornya.

Telescope movement is controlled by the computerized, and the data can be saved in a file. It would help if the same object observed. The telescope is equipped with sophisticated tools, such as:

• Tool spectrograph to obtain spectra in stars or other objects.
• photoelectric photometer is a tool that can be used for light power mengur star or other celestial object.
• Equipped with a CCD camera ST 6B, the same as the Zeiss telescope.
• Telescopes Unitron Reflaktor

The telescope is a telescope which is small compared to the existing telescope Bosscha, but its function is very meaningful. The telescope was used for observations and portraits at the time of the eclipse of the moon and sun, and can also be used to make observations and pemotreta the other heavenly bodies.

Because of the small telescope can be removed and mounted, so that it can carry-where. Objective lens diameter, 10.2 cm long with a 150 cm focal point is a device used to photograph sunspots or sunspots.

e. Additional Telescope Others

In 2007, the building next to a building constructed Bosscha binoculars, made by ITB students majoring in engineering and assisted by students majoring in physics is used to observe the sun, or commonly known as sun glasses. Used to look at the sun's surface, it is useful to global warming. Everything that happens on the surface of the sun can be shown the results through the digital display,

Seeing stars that shine at night has become a sensation, in addition to learning about the science or the science of astronomy, can be a wonderful recreation. Thus, if you want to enjoy the millions of stars in the sky just visit the Observatory Bosscha to try the five existing telescope.


a. Illustration atmosphere

What do we know about the atmosphere? During school, we learned the lesson that the atmosphere is a layer of gas or air that surrounds the planet, including the planet Earth. This atmospheric layer covering the earth from the surface of planet Earth to far out space. This is because the atmosphere has layers of different gases and have a great distance or different for each layer.

The atmosphere that surrounds the earth will move following the rotation of the Earth on its rotation and being similarly as in moving earth revolution around the sun. Layer of the atmosphere is a mixture of air, gas, dust, and moisture.

b. Benefit for the Earth atmosphere

• The atmosphere is Earth's protective of lacing sky objects such as meteors or asteroids.
• The atmosphere surrounding the Earth is very useful in helping to maintain the stability of the temperature day and night.
• The atmosphere is also useful for absorbing radiation and ultraviolet rays from the sun are very harmful to humans and the living things on earth.
• The atmosphere is created in the form of rainy weather, the heat, the cold, the snow so that there are two seasons in Indonesia, and there are four seasons in the other hemisphere.

c. Characteristics of Atmospheric

• In a study of the atmosphere, we can also determine the characteristics of the atmosphere.
• Atmospheric air shaped sheath that envelops the entire surface of the Earth to space is composed of elements from the gas, dust, and moisture.
• The atmosphere consists of several layers that have different characters and functions in each layer.
• The atmosphere began to envelop the earth starts at an altitude of 0 miles from the Earth's surface up to five hundred and forty miles above the surface bumi.Mengenal Atmospheric Layers

        1. Troposphere

Troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere closest to the surface and the earth. Troposphere is found at altitudes of zero to twelve miles from the Earth's surface. In the troposphere that we can sense weather changes that occur daily such as air pressure, humidity, rain, and heat.

Thick layers of the troposphere is approximately ten kilometers. Layer between the troposphere and the stratosphere is the tropopause layer, known as the boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere.
In the troposphere it is humans and other creatures on earth can. breathe freely because Troposphere layer contains oxygen. In addition, the atmosphere of this one also containing plenty of water vapor and carbon dioxide is the most compared to other atmospheric layers.

         2. Stratosphere

The stratosphere is the second layer contained in the earth's atmosphere. The stratosphere is situated at an altitude of between eighteen to forty-nine kilometers from the Earth's surface. Structure in the stratosphere is less dense when compared to other atmospheric layers.

In the stratospheric ozone layer is found useful to absorb or reduce the effects of UV radiation. With the destruction of the ozone layer in the stratosphere is caused by damage to the natural and pollution sinarultra violet radiation from the sun will greatly threaten human life and living things on earth.

In the stratosphere there is no water vapor or very little water vapor, clouds, and atmospheric dust. This layer has a temperature colder anyway because of the ozone layer.

         3. Mesosphere

Mesosphere is the third layer of the atmosphere that has a height of between forty-nine and eighty-two miles from the Earth's surface. Lowest temperature of approximately -143 degrees Celsius can be found in the atmosphere of this one.

At the lowest temperature occurred on the atmosphere is there will be a noctilucent cloud (created from ice crystals). Mesosphere layer is a layer of the "shield" Earth from objects falling numbers like meteors and other celestial objects.

At the top of the mesosphere temperature can range -1000 degrees Celsius. Mesosphere also has a layer of air ions or electrically charged and is called the D. Atoms present in the atmosphere of this one will be ionized and capable of emitting short-wave radio.

         4. Thermosphere

The next layer of the atmosphere is a layer of the thermosphere. This layer is a layer called the thermosphere because of an increase in temperature is very high on these layers. Changes in temperature is due to this layer absorbs ultraviolet radiation in bulk and directly.

Ultraviolet radiation resulted in a chemical reaction that produces electricity and charged layer called the ionosphere (capable of reflecting radio waves). Before emerging satellite technology ionesfer the coating is what helps to emit radio waves in the distance. Thermosphere layer is located at a height of eighty-two to eight hundred kilometers of the earth's surface.

          5. Ionosphere

The ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere is created by a chemical reaction arising from the absorption of ultraviolet radiation. Ionospheric layer is also included protective layer of the earth from the brunt of meteors that are moving towards the earth due to the gravitational pull of the earth.

In the ionosphere layer of the atmosphere is a meteor that burned directly then break down into smaller fragments. When the fragments that fall to earth will not be harmful to living things on earth.

         6. Exosphere

The final layer of the Earth's upper atmosphere is a layer of the exosphere. This layer is the outermost layer has a height of between eight hundred to a thousand kilometers above the earth's surface. Layer of the exosphere is the hottest layer because this layer reflects sunlight reflected by dust particles and meteorites. The sunlight reflected by a layer of the exosphere is called zodiakal light.

Exosphere layer is geostationary and interplanetary space and a layer of extremely dangerous because it is a disaster to strike termpat meteor that came from space.

Exosphere layer which is the outermost layer of the atmosphere that surrounds the earth is stretched so widely in space and blend with scattered solar radiation in space. Exosphere layer is composed of hydrogen gas as its main constituent gases.

Solar Twins Due Optical Atmospheric

Ever heard about the twin sun? Actually, when the phenomenon occurs, it does not mean the sun to number more than one and a twin. However, these phenomena are the result of atmospheric optical.

Just as the rainbow of dots resulting from rainwater can refract sunlight so comes the rainbow. So precisely what happened with this twin sun phenomenon. Twin sun or known as sun dogs usually show up when the sun was about two degrees from the observer. Usually two degrees from the observer position occurs when the position of sunrise or sunset position.

Initially, a beam of sunlight will fade slightly visible at the top when the sun was high in the corner. Then, when the sun is at the lowest angle, the longer the light beam will be visible focus and even brighter. Finally, here's a light that looks like the sun is splitting so that the left and right of the sun appears as if two suns.

Atmospheric optical phenomenon caused by sun rarely we experience because at times of sunrise or sunset, the sky is often covered in clouds so that the phenomenon is not clearly visible.


a. Illustration of comet

Comets become the most controversial of celestial bodies throughout history. Her presence in the sky is often interpreted as a sign of impending doom that befell the country. Although at this time the scientists have proved that the comet is a celestial body as common as stars, planets, satellites, asteroids, or meteorite. "Fear" of man can not be denied to them.

b. Comets in the Culture of the Past

Imagine when you lived about 1500 years ago. No explanation whatsoever about all natural phenomena. When it appears the tsunami, for example, the only possibility to create a tsunami was "logical" (accepted common sense that time) thought there was a creature that moves the disaster. Similarly, the comet.

This celestial objects appear suddenly in the sky like a burst of flame that is released out of nowhere. No one can predict where the fall and what effects might occur? Naturally, if with all its limitations, people of ancient times regard comets as something "bad" that is ready to destroy their lives.

For example, the mythological story of Babylon, Gilgamesh. In the story, the prototype of the story of Noah in the Semitic religions, the comet appears as a marker of flash flooding that hit the Babylonians. Similarly, what happened in Mongolia. Locals call the comet as a devil girl.

In the overview of Mongolia, the tail looks like a woman's hair. Comets are considered as the source of destruction, storm, and hail. In fact, the comet is often interpreted as a sign of the collapse of an empire or a fall of great powers.

In Roman history, the report found that the near-death of Julius Caesar, a passing comet. Crossing continents, the comet has also been looked after by the Incas just days before Francisco Pizarro, conqueror of South America from Spain, came and destroyed their empire.

Just less than 1000 years ago, the population of England still think comet (Halley's Comet in this case) as the appearance of evil. In 1066, Halley's Comet passed and in the same year, King Harold II was killed in the Battle of Hastings.

At that time, the historical record says Halley looked so bright in the sky, the light depicted ¼ bright moonlight. Meanwhile, the look four times bigger than Venus. Upset because every Halley's Comet comes, there is always a disaster, a writer, Eilmer of Malmesbury wrote as follows, "You came. Is that not so? Kala you arrived, you're the source of tears so many women (whose son died in the war Hastings). I hate you! It's a long time I did not see you. However, once you come back, the more you inflicted disaster to our country! "

Genghis Khan, conqueror of the world from Mongolia, including a few people who take advantage of the presence of Halley's Comet. He began his conquests to the territory of the Kingdom Khwarizmiyah Middle East after viewing the comet in 1222.

In 1456, Halley's comet reappeared. At that time, Pope Calixtus III (now living in Belgrade) to feel the need to set up a special prayer to avert the destruction of the comet that may arise. Calixtus III believes that after the comet passed, the devil will appear that will destroy human (European time). The devil is going to slaughter all Christians. Greeting the pope supported by mathematicians who have calculated that moment, every comet appear similar, there is always a disaster. Incidentally, after a time, the kingdom of Turkey Utsmany indeed managed to master the entire Balkans.

The most unique stories of the comet's presence might happen in 1910. Although at the time the information is there everywhere, believing that Halley's Comet brings major disaster is still strong. An astronomer, Camille Flammarion, creating a furore by stating that the tail of Halley's comet will destroy the Earth's atmosphere. As a result, gas-borne comet, will go to the earth's surface freely and destroy all life.

The issue is exploited by the businessmen who sell masks and umbrellas antikomet. As a result, unique items sold in a flash. Fear of the world is quite reasonable because there is a theory that comets cause extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.

In Indonesia alone, a belief also exists disastrous comet. In 1965, Comet Ikeya-Seki appeared. In the same year, an uprising G30S hitherto unknown culprit. Fatal effects of this rebellion, there was carnage all the elements involved with the Communist Party, a political organization deemed responsible for the uprising.

Similarly, when Halley's Comet appeared in 1986. After the incident, a massacre carried out covert New Order. Interesting to see what happens on July 28, 2061. At that time, Halley's Comet came back to earth. In fact, this comet will have a distance greater than the distance may be examined in 1986.
As a sign of coming of Comet Imam Mahdi?

Based on the background that each come comet always appear big events, there are those who believe that the comet will also mark the arrival of Imam Mahdi, the end-time defender of mankind. In this case, the intended course of Halley's Comet.

The presence of the comet in 1986, believed to mark the birth of Imam Mahdi in a year to two years later. This is confirmed by the interpretation of Ibn Hajar al-Haythami in Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi `Address al-Mahdi al-Muntazar" A comet will appear in the East by issuing a light before him (Imam Mahdi) comes. "

Meanwhile, the Al-Burhan fi address Mahdi al-era Final mentioned, "The emergence of the star will occur after the eclipse of the sun and moon (in the month of Ramadan)." Incidentally, before Halley's Comet came in 1986, a solar eclipse and the moon Ramadan in 1981 and 1982. However, it is hard to believe this because sometimes people just connect multiple events to legitimize his personal opinion. Moreover confirmed in a hadith, the real sun and the moon are just two signs from among Allah's power ..

Eclipse does not occur because of the death or birth of a person. "If you see the eclipse, pray to Allah., Bertakbirlah, do prayers, and bersedekahlah." Thus, the theory of comets as a marker of the coming of the Mahdi is very doubtful.

c. False Myths Regarding Comet

There are several myths surrounding the comet science wrong. First, many believe, the comet came from outside the solar system. In fact, all the comets came from two sites remaining in our solar system, the Kuiper Belt and Oort Fog.

Comets are more often we see (for example, less than 100 years old) from the Kuiper Belt. Meanwhile, the comet has a longer turnover (more than 1000 years old) come from the Oort Fog.

Secondly, there is the opinion that the matter was brought comets and asteroids are the same. However, it did not. Elements of asteroid rocks are more dominant than the element of ice. Instead, the element of ice in comets more than rocks. For this reason, when approaching the sun, some comets have long tails. Elements that make up the ice evaporates and the object looks like a long light by our naked eyes.

Third, most people believe that comet tails always have. Apparently, it is not always the case. When the comet is away from the sun, their tails (which is actually a sign that the comet evaporated material) disappeared. Actually the comet as well as other celestial bodies.

A new threat to the earth happen if a comet is really pounding our planet. Rather than fear the comet, we deserve to thank him. A study shows that all life on earth is not of our own planet. Comet for carrying kometlah carbon, water, and various other components of the earth a living creature.


God created the universe complete with a variety of supporting. God also created the "torch" for the earth, the sun in the daytime and the moon at night. The two objects of God's creation it has an important role in human life.

The sun, for example, the sun helps the process of metamorphosis on the plants so that plants can thrive, if the plants are well developed, the plants can produce oxygen needed by humans and animals. Likewise with the Moon.

The Moon is a space object that serves as a natural satellite of the earth. Called natural because the Moon is created instead of a human hand, in contrast to other satellites are created by humans. One is the satellite palapa. Palapa satellites are satellites of creation belongs to Indonesia. Palapa satellite is geostationary telecommunications satellites Indonesia.

Basically space objects orbiting other planets objects larger ones are called natural satellites. Thus the Moon orbiting Earth and has a smaller form of the Earth called the Earth's natural satellite. So is the Earth, the Earth orbiting the Sun, and the shape is very much smaller than the sun can also be referred to as a natural satellite of the Sun.

As a natural satellite, the Moon is not alone. Moon "accompanied" by four other natural satellites. The fourth satellite is Ganymede, Callisto, and Io orbiting Jupiter, Titan orbiting Saturn, and the moon itself orbiting the Earth.

Moon is the celestial bodies can not emit its own light. Moon can glow at night because it gets the reflection of light from the Sun. Actually, the Moon was also present during the day, but because the sun is much brighter light, the moon is only visible in the form of white dots tend to be transparent.

Moon has a form much smaller than the Earth. Its diameter is only 3474 miles. Approximately one-quarter smaller than the diameter of the Earth possessed. The gravitational force held the Moon was much smaller.

As a loyal natural satellites orbiting Earth, the Moon takes 27.3 days to 29.5 days orbital period and for a period sinodic to be circling the Earth in full. That's what we are familiar with the turn of the calendar month in BC, such as December, January, February and other months names contained in a single year.

Month depends on the force of gravity which is owned Earth. Earth's gravity hold the Moon from falling to Earth. The force called centrifugal force acts. Centrifugal force that the Moon possessed slightly larger than the attractive forces that occur in the Earth and Moon gravity.

Although there is no air and water on the Moon, but the Moon is the only celestial objects that can and never visited by humans. The surface of the Moon is not as smooth as we see from Earth. The surface of the Earth is full of sunken craters caused by asteroid impacts.

Illustration month

On July 20th 1969 the first man landed on the moon with Apollo 11 her. Then, the astronauts of Apollo 11 placed a retroreflektor on the lunar surface. Retroreflektor is a light reflector designed to reflect light coming (laser beam) from the Earth to the Moon, then come back to earth and is part of the experimental device measuring the moon's distance from Earth.

When the night comes shining moon, but just like the other planets, the moon does not have its own light source. Moon can be seen by us on earth as it gets reflected light from the sun. Moon is round like a ball with a diameter or 3.476km diameter, slightly larger than a quarter of Earth's diameter.

Rupa months were divided into five groups, namely:

1. Sea

Months have parts that were dark, smooth, and flat, which is called the sea or maria. Here the sea as the sea is not contained in the earth contains water. Sea is a part in the smooth, flat surface, the color is a bit dark, and does well in reflecting sunlight.

2. Highlands

Through the telescope photographs, people can determine the location and height of some of the mountains on the moon. Several peaks over 9000 meters high above the surface of the moon, one of the examples contained mountains are mountains Apenine month

3. Moon Crater

On the lunar surface are thousands and thousands of craters of various sizes and diameters that reach 800km.

4. Moonlight

Moonlight is the light that radiates to some direction from some craters months. Moonlight does not produce shadows. According to the investigation and research of the moon occurs clumps material ejected from the crater, and then reflect light better than him so far seems to shine.

5. Valley of the Moon

In a few months was found lying in a winding area similar to the old riverbed or like the abyss. Some geologists estimate that the valley of the moon is an old fracture that contains dust In the air that surrounds it has very little gravity, so that we can see through the film show the astronauts floating, floating in the air. The Moon's gravity approximately 1/6 times the gravity of earth, causing traction on weaker month to tie its atmosphere.

This is what causes the condition and temperature of the lunar surface can change very quickly. In very quiet due to noise or sound can not propagate. The sky on the moon seems very black, not blue as on earth. In no water cycle.


Earth is a planet in the constellation of the solar system, with the Sun as the center of revolution. The solar system is several celestial objects bound to star as one of the center of gravity.

In this case the Sun as the center of gravity. Celestial bodies are found in the solar system consists of planets, satellites, asteroids, meteors, and comets.

In the solar system there are eight planets, namely Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. All the planets around the sun periodically (revolution), in addition to any planet also surround each axis (rotation).

Revolution and rotation of each planet has a different time. Depending distance of each planet to Matahari.Selain Mercury and Venus, the six other planets have satellites. That is the sixth planet is a celestial body that regularly have surrounded him with a certain period.

Month (moon) is known as satellite Bumi.Deimos and Phobos are the two satellites of Mars; Ganymede, Io, Callisto, and Europa are satellites of Jupiter; Saturn has 60 satellites, one of which was named Titan with sizes larger than Mercury; Uranus has 27 satellites, including the named Titania, Ariel, Umbriel, Oberon, and Miranda, while Neptune has 13 satellites, one of the biggest named Triton.

Pluto, once considered one of the cluster of planets in this solar system. However, the development of science declared that Pluto was no longer considered a planet, but a dwarf planet.

The reason is because Pluto was still in orbit in the Kuiper Belt that Pluto is a celestial body other than the satellite there. A planet is defined as a planet in the one where there is a celestial body other than satellite. Pluto's change of status based on the consensus of the experts Astronomy at the International Astronomical Union meeting August 24, 2006.

History Planet and Planet Name History

Five planets closest to the Sun than the Earth, namely Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, has been known since the past because of all the planets can be seen with the naked eye. Aristotle introduces the names of the gods in mythology for these planets in the 4th century BC.

Hermes used to name Mercury, Ares to Mars, the planet Jupiter for Zeus, Kronos for the planet Saturn, and Aphrodite for the planet Venus. Along with the rapid advancement of science, the term "planet" changed your understanding of something moving across the sky became yanbg moving objects surround the Earth.

When the heliocentric models have dominated (19th century), when it also began to be regarded as planets that orbit the Sun and the Earth is a planet only.

Until the mid-19th century, all the objects are visible around the sun is called a planet. The number of planets to grow rapidly, and many at the end of this century. Throughout the period of the 1800s, astronomers began to realize that many of the recent discovery that is not the same as the traditional planets. Objects such as Ceres, Pallas and Vesta, which has been classified as planets for almost half a century, finally classified with a new name, the asteroid.

In this context, the absence of a formal definition of planet defined as causing large objects orbiting the Sun. There is no interest to determine the boundaries of sense because of the size between the asteroids and the planets are very different. Furthermore, in the 20th century, Pluto was discovered. Initial observations of the Pluto mention that Pluto has a size larger than the Earth.

IAU (Union internationale Astronomique) finally receives the object as a planet. A closer in finding that the object is actually much smaller than first thought. However, because it is larger than all known asteroids and looks do not exist in large populations, Union internationale Astronomique not change the status for more than 70 years. In the 1990s and early 2000s, there are many objects like Pluto's discovery in a relatively equal. Pluto was found only a small object in a population numbering in the thousands, just like the asteroids Ceres and the days before.

Increasing number of astronomers who want to be re-given understanding Pluto from a planet because the triggered increase in the discovery of similar objects. The discovery of Eris, an object more massive than Pluto, which further demonstrated extensively as the tenth planet, resulting in it becoming increasingly popular.

On August 24, 2006, based on voting, IAU akhiranya make sense of the new planet. As a result, the number of planets in the Solar System was reduced to eight items that successfully clean up the environment (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune). Meanwhile, a new class is established, the dwarf planets (Ceres, Pluto and Eris).


a. Illustration meteor

Actually, the fall of the meteor sighting a celestial object called meteoroids into the atmosphere of our planet region. Ordinary people used to call a shooting star because it looks like a bright light moving rapidly towards the earth.

Sometimes, meteors do not penetrate the atmosphere to the surface of the earth due to burn out due to friction with the atmosphere. But sometimes meteor did not burn down, and fell as a meteorite.

b. Meteor Showers

At the turn of the years 2010 to 2011 ago, there was an amazing natural event, namely the phenomenon of meteor showers. Meteor showers are falling meteor events across the Earth's atmosphere in large quantities, thus resembling rain. This happens because the Earth passes close to the orbit of a comet. The parts in the form of small flakes comet burn up upon entering the atmosphere, to look like a very beautiful light rain.

Planet Earth is quite often experience a meteor shower as it crossed several comets whose orbits are close to regions on Earth. Among them are, Lyrids meteor, Quadrantids meteors and meteor showers followed by Delta Cancrids.

Some are not passed over the skies of Indonesia, until the news was not heard by the country, except the Lyrids meteor shower happens when the new year. He crossed the northern Indonesia so it can be viewed by the public through the naked eye, or with the aid of a telescope.

c. Due Meteor Apocalypse

Some time ago also there was an event that shook the Indonesian people with the destruction of four houses located in the Jakarta area. Space agency researchers said there were indications that the cause of the destruction of 4 houses was the result of a meteorite fall.

The magnitude of the meteorite that hit four houses in Jakarta and caused the explosion reportedly only of chicken eggs. But the strength and power of destruction is very powerful. That happens because the force generated due to the speed of the stone is the time of entry into the atmosphere is huge.

In fact, in ancient times, dinosaurs and other ancient creatures to extinction because of the enormity of the effect of falling meteorite that size is quite large, causing a giant tidal wave. Really powerful force of nature that can destroy life on this planet.

Binoculars Stars

Binoculars Stars
a. Illustration telescope

A glass tube and some sheet named telescope was able to give us an understanding of the universe. Passed the age of four centuries, it still feels surprising and mysterious. Initially, Hans Lippershey want to make this kind of thing is not for the purpose of changing the idealistic universe. But otherwise, lensmaker Netherlands saw a business opportunity.

But the devices are made Lippershey was then changed mankind's view of 'distant objects' in 1608. Years in which prosper scientists and religious experts messy. Lippershey device consisting of a tube and a few pieces of glass which makes objects appear closer. He called it a 'visual apparatus'. While today we call a telescope.

When Galileo Galilei Lippershey heard about the new device, he then makes a kernel of the telescope itself. In 1609, he began using it to observe the night sky. Starting from observing the Moon through the Milky Way.

Galileo's telescope revealed that the universe is much broader than just the stars and planets visible to the naked eye we sendiri.Hal it provides strong scientific evidence to confirm that the Earth was not the center of the universe. Oops .. careful there are scholars who consider scriptural earth was the center of the universe.

Since then, the telescope has revealed another miracle that is: alias supernova pillar of star birth, colorful bubbles around a dying star, colliding galaxies, and maelstroms wrapping a giant black hole. It has helped to reveal the size and origin of the universe, and give clues about her fate.

Telescope is now a marvel of technology and science. Some units have an enormous mirror larger than the apartment, aka buangets Guede. Others, using the device does not need to be large, but are sensitive to radio waves, heat, or other energy types. Another cheat that stand higher than other telescopes. Whether on the mountain or in the earth's atmosphere like orbitkan The Hubble.

b. Binoculars Stars - World Observatory

The first astronomical observatory in the world that does not have a big telescope. Despite featuring some of the best and most accurate instrument ever made in prior periods, they just make it a little easier gap to help what astronomers have done for centuries: the night sky map by plotting the positions of stars and planets. Uraniborg is the first observatory known as the vision center ceiling or sky palace. The observatory was built by the Danish astronomer, Tycho Brahe. He was one of the most talented Skywatchers in the history of science.

The observatory is designed and built more than a dozen major instrument for Uraniborg and second, the observatory Stjerneborg ("Castle of the Stars"), on the front page. The main instruments include the sextant (although without optical glass), quadrants, armillary sphere, and more.

All are tools for planning positions astronomical objects. Some of the measured object from a height of an object above the horizon or direction in the sky, while others measured the angle between the two target objects. With these instruments, Tycho star atlas produced the most accurate and detailed to date. He was able to plot the position of planetary motion as they moved back and forth across the sky.

Johannes Kepler then use this plot to catalog compiled laws that describe how the planets move around the Sun, confirming the view that the Earth was not the center of the universe. But Tycho instrument is basically designed as an extension of the human eye. They can look deeper into space and certainly not for all eyes. Thus, the ability of the observatory is to improve human understanding of the universe is so limited.

c. Binoculars Stars - Newton Telescope

While Newton telescope uses a mirror prism principle on astronomical objects, it leaves a rather distorted due to the curvature of the spherical mirror. Eventually, astronomers will adopt the design using a parabolic mirror with a mirror, not a round.

James Gregory proposes this design in 1663. But there is no way to make a parabolic mirror at the time, so the design is not implemented for decades. A replica of Newton telescope with a mirror made not of glass, but of a metal alloy that consists of three parts copper and one part tin. These materials are mixed with a small amount of arsenic, which will make it easier to polished metal.

So Newton invented a new kind of telescope presented to his colleagues in the British Royal Society in January 1672. Not use glass lenses, Newton's telescope uses two mirrors polished metal. Primary mirror, at the bottom of the telescope tube, slightly curved inward, in the form of a ball. (In other words, if you extend the curve mirrors into space, it will form a ball.) Light from astronomical objects will hit the mirror surface and reflected back to the telescope tube, where it will hit the secondary mirror is flat.

Mirror, which is tilted at a 45 degree angle, in turn, will reflect light into the lens of the eye at the edge of the tube. Observers can see the images of stars, planets or other astronomical objects.

d. Binoculars Star - Industrial Era

Industrial Age brought prosperity unprecedented. Agricultural mechanics and manufacturing of textiles, steam power for transport, fast communication over long distances, and other quality of life and create a modern middle class.

Industrial Age also created a bevy of wealthy industrialists. This new rich gradually became an impromptu astronomers, astronomy or a customer switching to astronomy itself. This class is called "astronomer jentlemen". They made significant discoveries and contribute to astronomy technology to design and build new equipment.

In 1846, for example, William Lassell, an artisan selling beer for shipyard workers in England discovered the first moon of the planet Uranus. He made the observatory itself and even designed a new type of mounting which makes it easier for the telescope to track the target.

The wealthy industrialist also financed the construction of some of the largest telescopes in the world that is still used today. These people are some of the dominant force in the field of astronomy during the 19th century and beginning of the 20th, helped set up observatories and institutions that will provide some of the greatest discoveries of the 20th century. These people include:

• Leviathan William Parsons, Earl of Rosse, built 'Leviathan of Parsonstown', a telescope with a 72-inch mirror.
• Discovery Spektoskop. Spectroscope Gustav Kirchhoff and Robert Bunsen create a tool that would be the most important tool for future observation binoculars bintangik: spectroscope.
• Yerkes refractor. Yerkes Observatory in Wisconsin inaugurated the 40-inch refractor, which remains the world's largest refractor.

In the 20th century the astronomer big is better aka "bigger is better." So the emerging giant telescopes like wildflowers on a sunny spring, providing astronomers with a more impressive view of the universe. For example, the Palomar Observatory in California dedicated telescope world's largest and most famous.

The problem is, in the modern observatory is plagued by the effects on the atmosphere. The same effect that causes stars to shine also makes them look like a fuzzy blob was visible through telescopes usual. Worse still, the atmosphere absorbs many wavelengths of energy, making it impossible to observe much of what happens in the universe.

The solution is to increase the telescope and its instruments is higher than ground level. At the beginning of the 20th century, which means building the observatory will be installed at the top of a high mountain or in the mountains or did the road dilofting with balloons.

In 1970, it could dilofting into Earth orbit or beyond the orbit such as the Hubble. Gives a crystal of planets, stars, galaxies, and the universe. Since then, astronomy institutes around the world have launched dozens of telescopes into space, and the results were spectacular.


a. Illustration planetarium

Visit to the planetarium for students especially those who are sitting in elementary school, in addition to add insight about celestial objects such as stars and galaxies traveled the planet as well as cheap and mengasikkan. Planetarium can be visited in Jakarta which is located in the Taman Ismail Marzuki.

Planetarium at the Cikini Kingdom offers full amenities with the sophistication of a great and awesome display. Once inside the building we will see a variety of performances in it. Planetarium serves as a building which shows the performance of education, especially in the introduction of the heavenly bodies.

The uniqueness of this planetarium is invited audience together enjoying the natural beauty and expanse of the solar system in the constellation on the ceiling dome that forms a circle. You will be invited as if looking straight and close to the heavenly bodies.

b. Facility Planetarium

The facilities offered by the planetarium in Jakarta, among others, shows how much space is quite large, which can accommodate up to three hundred visitors in a single show. Of visitor chairs made in the collapsed position, you can see from the screenshot above shows the sky dome semicircular large.

Big screen planetarium comes from an instrument known as the projector universarium. Tool or projector that function as a driver of the heavenly bodies show it. Each session has a picture show or demonstration of celestial objects of different shapes background too, whether day or night.

In addition, other facilities that you can enjoy while visiting the Planetarium is a three telescopes that had been prepared for the binoculars and see the sky directly. Visitors can make use of this facility during limited hours already made schedule.

c. Shows in the Planetarium

In contrast to the observatory are also located in this area as well, have the planetarium dome is static or can not be opened. So this is just planetarium offers a show with a simulation of the tool projector.

Types of shows that can be watched on different Planetarium at any time in accordance with the rotation schedule. Shows include: The formation of the solar system, the blue Planet Earth, our galaxy the Milky magic and more.

Simulation shows an interesting addition, in the planetarium also provides a library that you can visit any time of the day. Books and journal Astronomy can be found in this library. In addition, many research results of knowledge about the field of Astronomy and collected by perpustakaaan at this planetarium.

Sunday, November 25, 2012

7 Ways to Overcome Tired Eyes Due to Computers

7 Ways to Overcome Tired Eyes Due to Computers
Eye is one of the senses of the most important and valuable. But sometimes we notice that the eyes need a break as well as the currency would also have been suffering from fatigue as well as our bodies if it continues to work then we get tired. Almost every person experiencing eyestrain caused too long in front of computers, and that is one factor we tired eyes.

Eyes that are too long in front of computers will lead to vision become blurred, eye pain or redness in the eyes. If that happens, it's best to consult or consult your eye doctor. For health info this time it will split the reader how to cope with tired eyes caused by computer.

Here are 7 Ways to Overcome Tired Eyes Due to Computers

1. Take a break
Do not force our eyes work continues in front of the computer all day. Allow your eyes to rest a few minutes, so that your eyes feel comfortable. If you need to close your eyes for a moment, if you wear glasses in order to remove it first. Relax and breathe deeply. Just for a few minutes for your eyes actually breaks.

2. Avoid homework
Avoid homework a few minutes when you get home. If you are office workers, usually in front of a computer most of the work. By the time you get home from home so as not to directly perform activities such as opening email, laptop, or mobile phone look even read magazines or newspapers. Let your eyes rest for about 1 hour.

3. Changing lighting
That way merupkan best way. Soft light is not too bright or too intense, but still shine with fit will make your eyes feel comfortable. For that try Dim the light, or turn on a small light, not the headlights. Feel how your eyes react afterward, not to damage the eyes due to light that is too little or too much.

4. Blink
We're a little flicker when we're doing an intense and consequently, we are rarely aware that dry eyes. A short break will help, as well as flashing, align your eyes and feel how they felt afterward. If your eyes feel dry, cover your eyes or if it still is not enough, use eye drops.

5. Massage
When we work in front of a computer screen our forehead muscles will be very tense and try to spend a few minutes massaging the head, eyebrows and neck. If anyone can massage you, it will help relieve the pressure.

6. Use Ice
Refrigerate your eyes when feel tired. This will give the reflection and stretching when your eyes are tired and weary.

7. Light Computers
When you use a computer or laptop, then use the dim lighting was not too bright.

That is some way to overcome the tired eyes, hopefully the information we provide can help in overcoming problems related to your eyes.

7 How to Eliminate Headaches Without Medication

7. How to Eliminate Headaches Without Medication
Previous health info had discussed about the causes of headaches, well next time we will discuss how to eliminate the headaches without using drugs. The headaches are often experienced by everyone, both young and old must have experienced headaches. So to relieve headaches that feel, we need to take the headache reliever. Yet there is another way to relieve headaches without using drugs.

Here's how to relieve headaches without medication

1. Cooling the head
Most people find a way to eliminate the headache by way of cooling the head. If you have a headache as migrants do wrap some ice cubes in a towel to dry, then put on your forehead for 15 minutes, then remove for 15 minutes. Do it repeatedly until the pain subsides.

2. Warms Yourself
Headaches can also be stopped with a sense of warmth, primarily due to muscle tension in the neck and the back of the head. Grab a bag of warm water and then place it on the neck and the back of the head. Alternatively you can take a shower with hot running water by letting the back neck.

3. Head Massage
Head pain can be lost when aided by a gentle massage. Use your fingertips to rub the back of the neck, forehead, scalp and shoulders. For maximum results, you can ask someone to massage you.

4. Sleep
Sometimes sleep can help to overcome headaches, especially migraines. You just find a place that is quiet to lie down and turn off the lights. Take advantage of your bed with a feeling of calm.

5. Relaxation Techniques
The cause prolonged headaches caused by stress and anxiety. Using relaxation techniques can help relieve your headache. The trick is as follows:

6. Sleeping supine in a dark and quiet
Tighten the muscles in the legs, then let it riles. Do the same for the lower leg and thigh. Move all the way into your body, tense and relax.

7. Sleep With A Comfortable Position
You sit or lie in a comfortable position, then close your eyes and imagine yourself being in a soothing environment, such as a warm meadow or deserted beaches. Imagine the wind in your skin and smells around you. While you imagine, take a deep breath and feel the air in and out of your body.

That was some way to eliminate headaches. Hopefully the above methods can help you overcome your headaches. For those of you who have acne problems please see directly the info about the tips get rid of acne.

Benefits of Napping

Benefits of Napping
Info about the benefits of health this time nap. Sleep is a normal process in which the human body is at rest, but when sleep breathing activity, body temperature regulation and muscle mechanisms continue to function. Good quality sleep is enough time. Not too long and not too short. For pre-school age when it takes about 1.5-2 hour nap. For toddlers around 2-3 hours.

Requirements vary nap at all age levels. Increasing age, it'll take a nap kebutuhanya wane until well into the age of 7 years. Research suggests nap proven to sharpen memory, but we need to know that napping has a high quality of each.

Here are instructions on the quality and benefits of napping

1. Napping for 10 minutes a nap for 10 minutes directly eliminate fears and improve brain work for at least 2.5 hours. While that is only 5 minutes peruma only.

2. Napping for 20 minutes during a 20-minute nap will increase your reaction speed in doing arithmetic. But of course the effect is not imminent, at least it took 35 minutes to neutralize the brain condition after waking.

3. Napping for 30 minutes you will feel sleepy initially, but as long as 5 minutes later, you'll be more alert and mentally fresh for as long as 90 minutes. But sleep for 10 minutes is better to avoid the unpleasant effects from too much sleep.

4. Nap for 45-90 minutes For 45 - 90 minutes, you're heading towards a deep sleep, but no sleep menyelesaikansiklus complete, (your body will feel bad after waking up, than before bedtime)

5. Napping 90-110 minutes sleep time exceeds the average - the average sleep cycle, exceeding the ideal nap time, usually when you take a nap by this time, when I woke up dizzy head compared before naps.

In addition to the above info we will also inform about the need for a nap stages of age by Asia Books Fack Sleep Book as follows:

• Infants 0-6 months time 3.5 hour nap
• Infants 6-9 months 3 hour nap time
• Infants 9-12 months 2.7 hour nap time
• Children 12-15 months had a 2.5 hour nap
• Children 15-18 months time 2.4 hour nap
• Children 18-21 months time 2.2 hour nap
• Children 21-24 months time 2 hour nap
• Children 24-36 months time 1.9 hour nap
• Children 36-48 months time 1.7 hour nap
• Children 48-60 months time 1.6 hour nap
• Children 60-72 months had a 1.5 hour nap

Similarly, health info we can give the benefit Napping may be useful to the reader. Read also other important health info to read about water fleas, thank you.

Causes of Back Pain

Causes of Back Pain
Info about the health of this time Cause Back Pain - Pain occurs because of muscle tension as you lift heavy objects suddenly in the wrong way, in addition to aged muscle tension also be one cause of people affected by this pain caused by spinal pengkapuran so cause nerve pinching.

Here are the details Causes Pain in general, namely:

1. Mechanical disturbance on the structure and unity of the function of the spine
2. Motion or incorrect posture when bending and lifting or goods
3. The use of high-heeled shoes, because under normal circumstances the lumbar region of the spine has a curve to the front, when the excessive forward curvature, would cause symptoms of back pain
4. Sleeping with pedestal / base that is too flexible so that makes bending the spine to follow the laid
5. Lack of exercise resulting flexibility of joints and tissues come down, so the muscles are easily injured because simple movements, such as lifting, pushing, or bent.

Pain can also be caused by the influence of a disease eg Kidney Disorders, Heart Disease, Cancer, bone disease, or metabolic disorders.

In order to avoid or prevent the consequences of Pain patients should pay attention to the following:

• Pay attention to your posture to avoid slouching body condition
• Perform activities lie flat.
• It should seek a balance between rest and physical activity
• The body should get enough rest
• Maintain a healthy diet, a healthy pattern of values ​​and a healthy mindset.

In addition to the above information we will notify natural way that can be used to resolve the Back Pain:

Red ginger 25 grams + 25 grams of fresh ground black buffoonery + 30 grams of fresh root mustard sky god + 30 grams of fresh leaves boiled with 600 cc of water until the remaining 300 cc, filtered water, drunk warm - warm, do regularly. 30 grams of fresh leaves of the gods meeting buffoonery + 30 grams + 25 grams of fresh leaves of fresh shark boiled with 500 cc of water until the remaining 200 cc, then boiled water is filtered and drunk warm - warm, do regularly.

Cayenne pepper (stems removed) + ginger (thinly - sliced) each - one taste and then soaked with 75% alcohol for 14 days. After that, applied to the soaking water pnggang painful, do regularly 120 grams + 150 grams of red ginger garlic + chili powder to taste soaked with 75% alcohol for 14 days. After that, the soaking water applied on the affected part.


Info about the health of this time the Yellow Disease. Jaundice is a disease caused by the change warnah skin, sclera (the white part of the eye) and the salivary glands caused by increased bilirubin in the human body. If the levels of bilirubin in the body exceeds the normal capacity, it will break down the bilirubin and mixed with the blood then affects the change in color of the skin and eyes to become yellow.

Jaundice is rarely found among us from the plague rarely affects adults, usually jaundice is more common in newborns or toddlers. But this time the health info will explain extensively both jaundice jaundice in adults as well as infants or toddlers.

Traits - traits jaundice:

1. The change in color of the skin and whites of the eye color looks yellowish
2. Increased levels of bilirubin that reaches 2-3mg/dL
3. Increased levels of billirubin will affect the liver, causing the urine to be yellow with a sharp odor.

Here's a little review of the functions and duties of the liver:

• Organ liver serves as a place to store food, especially sugar, fat and a little protein.
• The manufacture of plasma proteins (blood) and blood clotting substances
• Making bile which is very helpful as a digestive agent and the red blood cells that have been damaged
• A place to dispose of and destroy toxins and form red blood cells in babies still in the womb.

If jaundice usually affects adults of many cases that are caused by acquired penchant to consume alcohol in amounts enough to attack the liver thereby increasing billirubin levels in the body. While infant jaundice occurs when the bilirubin in the baby's blood through normal limits, under normal circumstances bilirubin values ​​less than 10 Ml / l. That led to high levels of bilirubin in infants are:

• Newborns, his liver function has not run 100%
• Infants less sunshine in the morning between the hours of 7:00 to 8:30
• infant and maternal blood type is different
• When pregnant mothers often consume herbs.

Response jaundice in infants:

• Jaundice is normal in infants can usually be overcome by frequent drying the baby under the morning sun.

• For infants with high bilirubin can be performed using phototherapy treatment to blood transfusion.

• Phototherapy method is a common therapy performed for infants with jaundice. Infants were given special protective eye, then the baby is placed in a special box that was given berwarnah light blue, infants who underwent this therapy is generally best to not use clothing to enlarge terkenanya light on the entire surface of the skin. Lamps that emit blue light will help eliminate bilirubin. Phototherapy is not harmful to the baby, if the baby is dehydrated then the liquid will be given by infusion.

• Blood transfusion therapy is rare, and is usually done in cases that have bilirubin levels that reached a serious level. Baby's blood will be taken and then be replaced by blood transfusion by the same amount.

How Bathing Baby

How Bathing Baby
How Bathing Baby - A new mother may be afraid to bathe her baby first. In fact, bathing is very important to do every day in order to avoid baby germs. Well health info this time is how the right way to bathe a baby.

Bathing a baby is an important part of baby care. How to bathe your baby is right and safe for your baby but it was not so difficult nor too easy for a lot of things to consider when bathing the baby.

The preparation is done before bathing the baby are:

1. Put a baby bath tub a clean place and try in a warm room.
2. Keep the time to bathe the baby, the baby in a relaxed state
3. Warm water conditions and should be clean and free of germs, because the baby's skin is very sensitive, high water inside the tub no more than 10cm.
4. Prepare all need to bathe your baby.

After arrangements were made following how to bathe a baby:

1. If not too sure to bathe the baby in the tub, you can put your baby on a flat covered with a soft cloth.
2. Remove clothes first.

3. When bathing the baby in the tub, try to position the legs first so that the baby was not surprised by the change in temperature. Then the berlahan to the back of the head. The position of the right hand supporting the head and the bottom of the left hand that cleanse the body.

4. Wash your baby is berlahan, use soap and baby shampoo

5. For genital areas and sensitive, use a soft washcloth to clean the area. For pretty face wash with warm water with a soft clean cloth and soft.

6. When finished, lift the baby gently, using both hands, then put a towel over the yag is a flat lie.

7. Dry the baby's body with a clean towel telon give oil to warm the body in the abdominal area, the crown, and the soles of the feet.

8. Then wear comfortable clothing for baby baby That's about the right way to bathe a baby.

Red Eye Symptoms

Red Eye Symptoms
Red eye is a result of changes in the blood vessels in your eyes makes your eyes look red, and usually occurs in one or both eyes. Red eye usually caused by irritation or infection. Even everyday causes, such as coughing, sneezing, crying, and lack of sleep, can cause redness of the eyes.

Red Eye irritation can be caused by smoke, fumes or dust in the air or household cleaning products or personal care products, like shampoo or soap entering your eyes. Wearing contact lenses prolonged irritation resulting red eyes. Allergy is a very common cause of red eye, whether they be local, such as an allergic reaction to eye makeup, or more generally, such as fever.

Another common cause of red eye is blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelid margins), conjunctivitis (inflammation of the surface of the eye), crying, or tiredness. Lack of sleep and allergic reactions from animal fur is also a cause of red eye.

To cause a serious eye sore it as acute glaucoma (a sudden increase in eye pressure), orbital cellulitis (infection of invasive soft tissue around the eyes), periorbital cellulitis (infection of the eyelid or other soft tissues around the eyes) Uveitis and iritis (inflammation structure of the eye).

As for some of the common symptoms of pink eye is often the case, such as:

- Bleeding or bruising
- Eyes sting
- There's something in the form of granules into the eye like dust or sand
- Increased tear production
- Runny nose (nasal congestion)
- Sneezing
- crusting

Serious symptoms of pink eye:

- Eyes bulging
- High fever (higher than 101 degrees Fahrenheit)
- Problems with breathing such as shortness of breath.
- There is a change in such penghlihatan penghilatan faded or missing.
- Crusting on the lips or tongue.
- There is a sharp object into the eye.

7 Ways to make sharp nose

7 Ways to make sharp nose
Aquiline nose is everyone's dream, and not a few people want a sharp nose. Many people beheaded or segelincir nose with surgery, but it need not cost you a bit. Not to mention the impacts or risks that may occur if done by surgery, organ damage could be our face. Those that do it injected to get an aquiline nose.

Actually, there are natural ways to decapitate your nose, you do not need to perform an operation that requires a high cost just decapitate the nose.

Here are 7 Ways to make sharp nose

1. Put your index finger along the middle part of your nose. Side of the nose that is not covered with a finger is part of the shaded.
2. Pulaskan bronzer or brown eyeshadow thinly on the side of the nose was not covered finger.
3. Lift your finger and then continue up to the limit of your shadow eyebrows.
4. Use shadow brush (brush) are of moderate size. Not a brush for applying eyeshadow or for applying blush on.
5. When applying, press the bristle brush with the index finger and thumb in such a way, so that the shape becomes flat. Thus contouring will create more evenly.
6. Do not forward contouring through the nostrils. Stop at the limit of the nasal bones and nostrils.
7. Do it carefully. Do not get into the eye shadow. Similarly, the area between the eyes and the eyebrows and the latter you need to remember, your hands need to do exercises to get used to. So frequently practiced.

Now you have an aquiline nose by following the tips that have been described above. This method will slowly make your nose will go up a few inches. Quite so first how to decapitate the nose.

7 Most Famous Botanical Gardens Around the World

Botanical garden (or botanic garden) is a land planted with various types of plants are intended for collection, research, and conservation ex-situ (outside habitat). In addition to research, botanical gardens can serve as a means of travel and education for visitors. Arboretum is a kind of botanical gardens to collect trees.

Here are 7 to Botanical Gardens or the famous botanical gardens in the world that:

1. Bogor Botanical Gardens, Indonesia

7 Most Famous Botanical Gardens Around the WorldBogor Botanical Gardens or the Bogor Botanical Garden is a large botanical garden located in Bogor, Indonesia. The extent of 87 hectares and has a collection of 15,000 species of trees and plants. Bogor Botanical Gardens is one of the oldest botanical gardens in Asia and has its own beauty.

2. Hortus Botanicus Leiden, The Netherlands

7 Most Famous Botanical Gardens Around the World
The Hortus Botanicus Leiden is the oldest botanical garden of the Netherlands, and one of the oldest in the world. This botanical garden is located in the southwest part of the city's historic center, between the building and the Academy of Leiden Observatory.

3. National Botanic Garden Belgium

7 Most Famous Botanical Gardens Around the World
National Botanic Garden Belgium (Dutch: Nationale Plantentuin van België, French: Jardin Botanique de Belgique national) Bouchout located in the Castle area, near the municipality of Meise, just north of Brussels. Belgian National Botanical Gardens is one of the largest botanical gardens in the world with a collection of plant life in addition to a lot more than 3 million herbarium specimens.

4. Botanical Gardens Montreal, Canada

7 Most Famous Botanical Gardens Around the World
Montreal Botanical Garden (French: Jardin Botanique de Montréal) is a large botanical garden in Montreal, Canada. Consisting of 185 acres (748,668 square meters) of thematic gardens and greenhouses. Montreal Botanical Garden is really big, probably the third largest botanical gardens in the world.

5. Kew Gardens, England

7 Most Famous Botanical Gardens Around the World
Kew Gardens or the Royal Botanical Garden Kew (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew). Commonly abbreviated as Kew Garden is a vast area of ​​the park and greenhouses are located between Richmond and Kew in southwest London, England. Kew Garden is one of the oldest botanical gardens in the city of London that has been green for over 250 years.

6. Singapore Botanic Gardens, Singapore

7 Most Famous Botanical Gardens Around the World
Singapore Botanic Gardens has a fairly complete collection of plants. This small forest is right next to Gleneagles hospital. The garden has an area of ​​about 64 hectares, here you can enjoy the scenery and lush green trees.

7. Bergian Botanical Garden, Sweden

7 Most Famous Botanical Gardens Around the World
Botanic Gardens Bergian or Bergianska Trädgården or Bergianus Hortus is a botanical garden located in Frescati, an area not far from Stockholm. And adjacent to the National Museum of Natural Sciences Sweden and the main campus of the University of Stockholm.

Saturday, November 24, 2012

7 Habits That Can Enrich Life

7 Habits That Can Enrich Life
Almost everyone wants to be wealthy or not wealthy, and may also include you. Yes, although not all people are like that. But the more people who want to be rich or have wealth. Even in order to achieve this, a lot of things that he did and he gave up. But did you know not all wealth is measured only from sheer material, even things that you yourself were trivial and not worth even that can make you rich or values ​​of others as wealth is within you. And material wealth can not always give you happiness loh .. and it would be nice if we were not only oriented to enrich life in terms of material. But we need to enrich life with other things are much beneficial for myself and others ..

Here are 7 habits that can enrich lives

1. Habits Giving Gratitude
This is a special habit that can change lives for the better always. Even religion encourages us not only be grateful for the good things, but also in distress and bad days .. There is a big secret behind thanksgiving proven throughout history. Hellen Keller was blind and deaf since the age of two years, has become a well-known and admired throughout the world. One of the many motivating words were "I'm thankful for these flaws I found myself, my work and my God." It's hard to be grateful, but we can learn gradually. Begin grateful for life, grateful for blessings, health, family, friends etc.. Eventually you might even be grateful for trouble and a bad situation.

2. Positive Thinking Habits
Our lives are shaped by what we think about most often. If you always think positive, we tend to be a positive personal. The characteristics of positive thoughts always lead to truth, goodness, compassion, hope and joy. Frequently monitor what you are thinking. If you are mired in negative thoughts, control immediately towards the positive. Make a habit of positive thinking and see how many positive things as a habit and see how many positive things that you will experience.

3. Empathize Habits
Ability to relate to others is an advantage possessed by many successful people. And one of the important elements in dealing with others is empathy, the ability or sensitivity to look at from the point of view that empathy lain.Orang could even feel the feelings of others. People who can feel empathy even feelings of others, understand the motive behind his desire and capture the attitude of others. This is the exact opposite of the selfish attitude that it demands attention and understand other people. Although not everyone is easy to empathize, but we can learn to get used to perform actions that empathic. For example, be a good listener, learn to put yourself in the shoes of others, learn to do what you want others lakukankepada you, etc..

4. Putting The Essential Habits
Think about what is most important, and dahulukanlah!. Do not let your life get caught up in things that are not important as the things that are important neglected. Begin to sort out which ones are important and which one is not, an important prelude habits will make you an effective and productive life and improve your self-image significantly.

5. Habits Sowing Seeds
Sowing principle applies in life. In time you will reap what you sow. Imagine how rich your life when you are always sowing seeds of 'goodness'. But otherwise, how poor you are if diligently sow evil.

6. Habits Honest Living
Without honesty, we can not be pribadiyang intact, it can even damage the self-esteem and your own future. Start getting used to being honest, not only to themselves but also to sendir others. Start telling the truth, despite the risk. When you lie, you lie control your piecemeal

7. Sharing Habits
The habit of sharing or charity is in addition very helpful to other people, this practice will also be useful for the culprit. Because in religion, every single charity then we'll get 10x feedback from our charity is. And this habit can make you much more sensitive to the environment and the fate of others.

7 Perception And Thought Patterns That Hinder Success

7 Perception And Thought Patterns That Hinder Success
ever crossed your mind, about what will happen to us in the future? What we later, so what we later or things that we will accomplish later. Definitely among the friends all want a much better life and success in the future, or maybe you can not wait to taste that success. Despite the relative success for everyone. For the measure of success for each person is different.

However, friends of all whether you ever feel that it turned out so difficult to achieve that success, not as easy as what he imagined. And maybe there are some of us who often feel despair or surrender to life's challenges. Actually you know friends, that actually makes us find it hard to realize that success is our own minds. For example: when we faced a test and we find it difficult to deal with, it would appear the idea that God is not fair because it always gives the test. And eventually you will feel hopeless and to blame God and the people around you to all the problems and failures of your failure.

Here are 7 Perception And Thought Patterns That Hinder Success

1. Inferiority
Feeling that yourself no better than anyone else and feel no excess whatsoever in him this can actually make you fail. Because everyone must have a plus side. Because we are created from scratch, it's the most perfect beings, so do not ever feel that you lower yourself.

2. Fear Of Life Challenges
How can we reach the peak, if we are afraid to climb the mountain.

3. Fear of failure
The more we are afraid to fail, then the failure is getting closer to us. Need to remember, that we as human beings can only try and pray, that's not our problem results were decisive. If you want greater opportunities for success, then you need to maximize efforts and prayers. And not whether that failure is success delayed. So why be afraid!!

4. Afraid to take risks
Sometimes it potential opportunities that arise if we dare to take risks. For the occasion and the opportunity will not come if we do not pick him up. How to take the risk, of course, the risk is that we expect more negative than positive opportunities. And risk is not risk for crime, but the risk for good.

5. Not Dare to Dream
How to be successful, if you do not want success. Many examples of stories and films that mengkisahkan a success that began with a dream. Such as Laskar Pelangi and others.

6. Feeling Life So Hard
Actually, life is not difficult, but our own that makes it difficult. Example: we want to have the latest mobile phone, while financial conditions are not possible, and then you blame god, that god does not simplify life and always mempersulitnya. Actually, we who make a living on our own, already know the economy is not good but still forced ego. Therefore we must be clever clever grateful.

7. Despair
Desperate nature of an attitude and principles that should be thrown away. For if the nature and attitudes inherent in our principles, then we will be a failure and away from success